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The headquarters of the division was in Erzurum, and the headquarters of the 3rd Division under the command of the district governor Halit Bey was in Trabzon. Again, the 12th Division of the corps was located on the east border of Hasankale, and the 11th Division was located in Bayezıt. The two-division 13th Corps, located near Diyarbakır, was independent. He was subject to Istanbul. 2nd Division in Siirt; Its 5th Division was in Mardin (Atatürk, 2000a: 7‐9). In the memoirs of the period, it is possible to find important information about the occupations and the activities of the minorities, as well as the situation of the army.

2 – Activities of Minorities and Social Life Against the Occupations Karabekir, in his memoirs, when he came to Istanbul on February 11, 1919, the Turks would be expelled from Istanbul, the Eastern provinces would be from the great Armenians together with the Adana province, and Thrace would be given autonomy, He notes that the Greeks will come to Izmir and Pontos will be in the Black Sea, and the news, which surrounds the existence of people, are scathing the people and European newspapers (Karabekir, 1993: 48‐50). At the beginning of the armistice period, two warships carrying a French naval officer and a British major came to the port of Iskenderun and offered to scan the torpedoes in the port, based on the order of the Allied Forces Commander General Allenbi and Article 2 of the armistice. Ali Fuat Pasha states that the arrival of these two officers was actually for the purpose of occupation of Isken derun, therefore, the necessary precautions were taken and these torpedoes and commanders were removed from Iskenderun (Cebesoy, 1953: 27). Journal of Qafqaz University

According to Article 6 of the Armistice, allied forces would invade the Taurus Mountains tunnels. Although the occupation of the cities was not envisaged, the Allied Powers started to invade our cities by relying on this article. D. Arıkoğlu stated his witness about the invasion of Adana with the following words; “.. The first occupation of Adana started on 25 November 1918. French Colonel Raymond came to Adana on this date with many police officers in his entourage. He settled in the Murat Palas (Cumhuriyet) Hotel. A few days later, Veli Nazım Bey (the elder brother of the Erzurum MP, Aziz Akyürek) went to visit the province office and demanded that Adana would be occupied by the French soldiers, some official offices were evacuated, and the remaining Turkish soldiers were withdrawn; İsmail Safa, who is known as a dark Unionist in the country, mentioned Muhtar Fikri (Mersin Me‐ busu) Küçük Mustafa (Deputy Responsible for the Clerk of the Committee of Union and Progress) between the gentlemen and my request that we leave Adana…. There were important Armenian volunteers among the French soldiers under the command of Colonel Raymond. Armenian refugees who were sent to Syria returned to Adana as a group after the truce was signed. Most of them were in Aleppo, Damascus and Beirut. They filled the country at the first opportunity. Colonel Raymond’s soldiers occupied Adana in the afternoon on December 21, 1918. ” (Arıkoğlu, 1961: 72‐74). In the face of the invasion of Adana, the Turkish people did not know what to do in deep sorrow. Damar Arıkoğlu said the mood of the people in the face of the occupation, “They were all waiting for the result withdrawn to their home. Or he went to a friend’s house and tried to discuss his situation alone. Which situation? They could not speak a single word. Often they left one of the bitter joints and burned one. ” (Arıkoğlu, 1961: 74). Despite this situation of the people, Adana governor Nazım Bey was cool with the people he sent to the districts of the city, the people did not cause an incident and the occupation Number 26, 2009

He was working so that he would not lose his status, and stated that he had written the situation to Istanbul. D. Arık‐ son stated that they understood the value of Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s advice after the occupation, but in the meeting they held about what to do in the face of this great disaster, the thoughts put forward resembled the complaints of a dying patient ( Arıkoğlu, 1961: 74). In his memoirs, Damar Arıkoğlu expressed the persecution and oppression of the invading French and Armenian defenders in Adana with the following words: “The situation was getting worse day by day. In the vicinity of the Ha‐ lep, Adana and Toros tunnels railway, the Armenian committee members with the voice of the French military team started robbing and killing the Turks whenever they had the opportunity. These bad weather were spreading everywhere. TO

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